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10 Scientific Questions We Can’t Answer Yet

In the Middle Ages, the Black Death spread, causing fear and confusion. It took many years to understand…
10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

In the Middle Ages, the Black Death spread, causing fear and confusion. It took many years to understand that rat fleas and bacteria were the culprits. This discovery showed the power of science.

Even now, scientists tackle complex questions daily. Despite advancements in technology and AI, we still have mysteries. Some wonder about life after death, the origin of life on Earth, and the forces behind our universe.

While we’ve solved some puzzles, like understanding diseases, others remain unanswered. Humanity continues to seek truth and clarity, aiming to unravel the mysteries of our existence.

1. Why Do We Dream?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

In your recent dream, you chopped off the head of a six-legged rabbit while wearing a neon pink bonnet and shouting “Gesundheit” loudly. You’re unsure if this dream has any meaning, except maybe you had too many hallucinogens in college or ate some bad carrots recently.

Scientists and sleep experts can tell when people usually dream. Dreaming usually occurs during a sleep stage called rapid eye movement (REM). You can tell someone is in REM sleep because their eyes move quickly, and their body may twitch. During REM, the brain’s electrical activity is high, similar to when awake.

Scientists are still unsure why people dream. It might be a way for your mind to deal with stress or process difficult experiences. Dreams could also be how your brain protects itself from threats and dangers, even if you’re unaware.

Dreams might also be a biochemical process for your brain to organize and store short-term or long-term information. They could also be a way for you to make sense of your past and present experiences, helping you to prepare for the future.

Dreams are a fundamental part of being human, no matter why we have them. They can be entertaining and unsettling, showing us that our inner thoughts are as complex as the world around us.

2. How Can We Eliminate Cancer?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Cancer is a very serious illness that affects many people each year. While doctors can treat some types of cancer, not all treatments work for everyone. In the United States alone, more than half a million people die from different types of cancer every year. It’s a scary disease that can take many different forms and affect different parts of the body.

The main problem with cancer is that it causes cells to grow out of control. These extra cells form tumors, which can damage the body and even lead to death. Sometimes, this happens because the DNA in our cells gets damaged. DNA is like a set of instructions for our bodies, telling them how to grow and function. Certain things in our lifestyle, like too much sun, smoking, or being around harmful chemicals, can damage our DNA and increase the risk of cancer.

Experts say that more than a third of cancers could be prevented if people avoided things that cause cancer. But it’s not just about lifestyle—our genes also play a role. Some people are more likely to get certain types of cancer because of their genes, even if they live healthy lives.

Because there are so many different factors involved, some scientists think that we may never find a cure for every type of cancer. But the good news is that we’re always learning more about cancer and finding better ways to treat it. New treatments are being developed all the time, which means that people with cancer can have better lives and feel less scared about their diagnosis. While we may never completely get rid of cancer, we’re getting better at fighting it and improving people’s lives.

3. What Happens When You Die?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Just like we wonder how life began, we’re curious about what happens after death. It’s one of the oldest questions people have asked. Will we find eternal happiness or face punishment for our wrongdoings? Or maybe our consciousness will disappear once our bodies stop working? Some even wonder if we’ll come back to life as different creatures.

Scientists have some understanding of what happens when someone dies. They know how the body starts shutting down. It’s like turning off the lights in a store after it closes—cells in your body stop working, one by one, until your heart and brain stop too.

But what happens after your brain stops working is still a big mystery. Some people who’ve almost died and then come back to life talk about seeing lights, remembering past events, or talking to loved ones who’ve died.

These experiences might have a scientific explanation. They might happen because of a lack of oxygen or changes in the body’s chemicals.

Of all our life questions, this one might never get answered. Instead, we’ll keep wondering and searching for meaning even after death.

4. Are We Alone in the Universe?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Even though we’ve learned much about the universe from studying space and tiny particles, we still don’t know if we’re alone in our solar system. If we are, it would be pretty lonely out there.

Some scientists think Earth can’t be the only place with life. There might be around 40 billion planets like ours just in our galaxy, the Milky Way. That’s a lot of chances for other life forms to exist.

A planet needs the right mix of elements and conditions for life to start. Then, something has to spark life. After that, creatures need to evolve and become intelligent beings.

Even the simplest lifeforms on Earth are very complex to us. We’re still trying to determine how they develop and survive in different environments. This makes it hard to find and talk to aliens.

However, NASA scientists believe we might find signs of life in the next few decades, especially with better telescopes.

Earth may be just a strange accident, a unique place in the universe. But since we know water and similar things are on other planets, it’s likely that somewhere out there, another species is also wondering if they’re alone in the universe.

5. Where Does Consciousness Come From?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Humans have a special awareness that helps us understand the world and think about ourselves. We ask questions and have thoughts about who we are and why we’re here. It seems like we’re the only creatures that have this kind of active consciousness, and we don’t really know how it happens.

Our brains are like the main computers of our bodies. They control everything we do, from breathing to thinking. Brain scans show how busy our brains are, with billions of nerve cells constantly sending signals to each other, just like a complicated digital network.

However, the brain and the mind are not the same thing. Electrical signals in the brain can’t fully explain how a physical organ gives rise to something nonphysical, like consciousness. Some religions believe that consciousness is a special gift from a higher power given to us to help us navigate life.

Scientists generally believe that consciousness originates from biological processes. They view consciousness as a series of complex biological functions that lead to advanced thinking and, eventually, self-awareness.

Scientists have found that animals like dogs likely have consciousness, although it may be at a different or lower level of awareness than humans.

6. How Many Species Are on Earth?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Earth is home to an incredible variety of creatures and plants. From pink flamingos soaring in the skies to giant elephants roaming the savannas, and peculiar fruits and ferns hiding in various places. Scientists have been working for centuries to count the different species on our planet.

Botanist Carl Linnaeus developed a system over 250 years ago to keep track of Earth’s species. He started naming and organizing plants and animals using specific categories.

Despite all the efforts, we’ve only identified about 1.5 million species, only about 15 percent of all the species out there. Many organisms still need to be identified, especially lesser-known ones like fungi, of which we’ve only described about 10 percent.

However, we’ve done a better job with mammals, as we’ve recorded most of them.

These numbers are just educated guesses, so we may never know the exact count. What’s more concerning is that species are disappearing faster than ever before since the time of the dinosaurs. If this trend continues, humans could be in danger, too.

7. Is Reality Real?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Understanding human reality can be tricky. Sometimes, waking up from a scary dream can leave us confused and unsure if what we experienced was real. This suggests that our senses might not always give us the full picture of what’s happening around us.

The things and people we see every day aren’t there. They could be creations of our minds, appearing to us for reasons we don’t fully understand. Some scientists think the universe is like a giant computer simulation designed to trick us into believing in something that isn’t real.

Scientists and physicists are at the forefront of this exploration, tirelessly striving to unravel the enigma of reality. With each discovery in the realm of physics, our universe grows more enigmatic. We continue to unearth new particles and forces, each a piece in the puzzle that governs everything, from the tiny atoms to the boundless expanse of space.

Imagine, if you will, a world beyond our senses, a realm of existence that eludes our perception. Some scientists propose the existence of such a place, a vast expanse of dimensions. It’s akin to embarking on an endless journey of discovery, where the more we learn, the more we realize that reality is a puzzle, forever just out of our reach.

8. How Did Life Begin?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Our planet is full of trees, grasses, birds, bees, and countless bacteria. These are all forms of life, and they reproduce to continue their species.

But how did life start in the first place? How did many cells turn from simple organic molecules into living and sometimes intelligent beings?

The short answer is we don’t know exactly how life began. There’s a small chance that 4 billion years ago, aliens left some microbes here to grow. Many religions have supernatural explanations for the origin of life.

Many scientists believe life naturally arises on planets with the right ingredients for biology, like carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. With the right spark, such as a lightning bolt, these elements might slowly form cell walls and DNA needed for life. Researchers are constantly conducting experiments to find the recipe for creating life.

Despite their efforts, it’s still a mystery how non-living parts came together to form living beings. We might still not fully understand what defines life or the physics principles that make life possible. Regardless, the quest to uncover the origins of life will continue for a long time.

9. Is Time Travel Possible?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

Time travel is one of the most fascinating science-fiction ideas. Imagine going back in time to see a Roman battle or breathe air free from pollution. Or think about what the world might look like 1,000 years into the future.

Interestingly, time travel might not just be fiction. Although we haven’t figured out how to do it yet, some theories suggest it’s possible.

One idea involves wormholes, which are bridges through time and space. If you could enter a wormhole, you might come out on the other side of the galaxy at a different time.

Another possibility is traveling at the speed of light. At such speeds, your experience of time would slow down compared to those you left behind. However, current science says nothing can travel that fast, and even if we could, it might be too dangerous for our bodies.

We could also orbit massive black holes, which have such strong gravitational pulls that they slow down time. If you spent 10 years near a black hole, people on Earth would have aged 20 years by the time you returned.

Cosmic strings, cracks in the universe, might also help us navigate time. These strings have so much mass that they could cause space-time to change around them.

Even if we could manipulate these scenarios, time travel might come with many paradoxes that make it impractical or dangerous. For now, time travel remains a concept for books and movies.

10. Is the Universe Truly Infinite?

10 Scientific Questions We Can'T Answer Yet

When you look up at the night sky and see countless stars, it’s easy to think the universe might be infinite. Or maybe you see them like glow-in-the-dark stars on your bedroom ceiling, just pretty decorations with a limit. Science hasn’t yet determined if the universe is infinite or finite.

Scientists have theories, though. By analyzing data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectrographic Survey (BOSS), a powerful telescope in New Mexico, one group found that the universe has a very flat structure. This study, based on “only” 1.2 million galaxies, suggests our universe isn’t shaped like a sphere.

But is this flatness infinite? We can’t say for sure. One popular idea is that the Big Bang caused the universe to expand faster than the speed of light. Since we can’t see beyond the speed of light, we may never know if the universe has an edge.

We might spend our lives wondering about the true size of the universe. It’s a mystery that, like many others, fascinates us but doesn’t offer clear answers.

Whether you’re curious about the size of the universe or how life started on Earth, our existence is full of strange and unexplained phenomena. These questions might trouble us throughout our lives, but they are also a fundamental part of being human.


The quest to answer fundamental scientific questions continues to drive human curiosity and innovation. Despite our incredible advancements in technology and understanding, there are still many mysteries that elude us. Questions about the origin of life, the nature of consciousness, the size of the universe, and the possibility of time travel challenge our knowledge and inspire ongoing research. These unanswered questions are not just scientific puzzles; they are essential to the human experience, pushing us to explore, discover, and seek deeper understanding. As we continue to investigate these mysteries, we not only expand our knowledge but also enrich our appreciation for the complexity and wonder of the universe.


Q1: How did life begin?

Ans: Scientists are still uncertain about how life originated on Earth. While theories suggest it could be a natural progression of elements like carbon and hydrogen, the exact process remains unknown.

Q2: What is consciousness?

Ans: Consciousness, or self-awareness, is still a mystery. While it is believed to be a result of complex biological processes in the brain, how it arises from physical matter is not fully understood.

Q3: Is the universe infinite?

Ans: The true size of the universe is still unknown. Some theories suggest it is infinite, while others propose it has a finite boundary, but current technology limits our ability to determine this.

Q4: Are we alone in the universe?

Ans: Despite extensive search efforts, we have not yet found definitive evidence of extraterrestrial life. The possibility of life on other planets remains one of the biggest unanswered questions.

Q5: What happens after we die?

Ans: The nature of what happens after death remains a profound mystery. Various theories exist, ranging from religious beliefs in an afterlife to scientific hypotheses about consciousness ceasing, but no conclusive answers are available.

Q6: What is dark matter?

Ans: Dark matter makes up a significant portion of the universe’s mass, yet it does not emit light or energy. Its exact composition and properties are still unknown.

Q7: How does time travel work?

Ans: While theories like wormholes and cosmic strings suggest possible methods for time travel, we have not yet discovered a practical way to travel through time.

Q8: Why do we dream?

Ans: The purpose of dreams is still debated. Some theories suggest they help process emotions and memories, while others believe they serve no significant function. The exact reason remains elusive.

Q9: Can we achieve unlimited clean energy?

Ans: While renewable energy sources like solar and wind power show promise, achieving unlimited and entirely clean energy is a complex challenge that scientists are still working to solve.

Q10: What is the fate of the universe?

Ans: The ultimate fate of the universe, whether it will continue expanding indefinitely, collapse in a “big crunch,” or reach a stable state, is still unknown and subject to ongoing research and debate.