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What Are Stock Fundamentals?

What Are Stock Fundamentals? Stock fundamentals like cash flow and return on assets (ROA) are important measures for…
What Are Stock Fundamentals?

What Are Stock Fundamentals?

Stock fundamentals like cash flow and return on assets (ROA) are important measures for a company. Analysts use fundamental analysis to study a stock by examining its fundamentals. This means they look at any information that could affect a stock’s price or how valuable it’s seen to be.


  • Fundamental analysis involves examining data that could affect a stock’s price or perceived value.
  • Some key aspects of stocks are cash flow, return on assets, and conservative gearing.
  • Analyzing fundamentals can be tough because it involves examining financial statements to determine whether the stock price is accurate.

How Stock Fundamentals Work

In simple terms, fundamental analysis means examining any information that could affect a stock’s price or how valuable people think it is. This includes everything except how the stock is trading. It’s about getting back to the basics of the company.

Fundamental analysis aims to paint a picture of a company, determine its shares’ true value, and make buying or selling decisions based on that information. Common indicators used to assess company fundamentals include:

  • Cash flow
  • Return on assets
  • Conservative gearing
  • History of profit retention for funding future growth
  • The soundness of capital management for the maximization of shareholder earnings and returns

Fundamental analysts use careful methods to study how stocks perform. They examine different factors that they think affect how well a stock does. These factors include the industry, competition, management, income, revenue, and how much the company can grow.

Example of Stock Fundamentals

The information is easily accessible from a company’s financial statements, which are available to the public. The aim is to determine which stocks are priced accurately or inaccurately by the market.

To understand this concept better, let’s imagine the stock market as a shopping mall, with stocks being the products sold in the stores. The focus is entirely on the items available in the mall. Customers are seen as an unpredictable, emotional group with little understanding of the products’ worth.

Fundamental analysts take their time browsing through the stores to find the best bargains. When the crowd moves away from, let’s say, the personal computers (PCs), they carefully examine the ones that were ignored.

Fundamental analysts might try to estimate the worth of the PC parts like the hard disk, memory cards, monitor, and keyboard if they were sold separately. This is similar to determining a company’s book value or liquidation price in the stock market.

Fundamental analysts inspect the PC’s durability, examining its specifications, manufacturer’s warranty, and consumer reports to determine if it will last or break down quickly. Likewise, equity analysts review a company’s balance sheet to assess its financial stability.

Next, fundamental analysts assess the PC’s performance, focusing on processing power, memory, and image resolution. These are similar to forecasted earnings and dividends in a company’s income statement.

Finally, fundamental analysts gather all the information and determine the intrinsic value, which is the value irrespective of the current selling price. The analysts will purchase the PCs if the selling price is lower than the calculated intrinsic value. If not, they will sell the PCs they already have or wait for prices to decrease before buying more.

Special Considerations

Performing fundamental analysis can be challenging, but that’s part of what makes it attractive. Investors can determine whether the stock price is accurate by carefully examining a company’s financial statements and predicting its future growth.

These careful investors can identify when the market is wrong and profit from it. Investing in companies with long-term value shields them from the risks of daily market ups and downs.

Determining that a stock is undervalued through fundamental analysis doesn’t guarantee it will reach its true value soon. Stock prices are unpredictable, and even savvy investors may doubt the effectiveness of fundamental analysis. There’s no foolproof method to calculate intrinsic value.

Important: Simply because fundamental analysis indicates that a stock is undervalued doesn’t mean it will soon trade at its true worth.

During a market boom, investors might feel great at picking winning stocks. However, luck alone won’t cut it when the market drops and things are uncertain. Investors must have a solid understanding of what they’re doing.

Fundamental Analysis vs. Technical Analysis

Fundamental analysis and technical analysis are two distinct approaches to evaluating stocks. While fundamental analysis looks at a stock’s intrinsic value, technical analysis focuses on its trading history and price movements. Instead of delving into a company’s financials, technical analysis uses tools and signals to assess a stock’s strength or weakness based on its past performance in the market.

Technical analysts use a stock’s past price and trading history to predict its future direction. They believe that price movements follow identifiable patterns and trends that repeat over time, suggesting that price movements are not random but can be analyzed to make predictions.

To illustrate, imagine a shopping mall. Technical analysts pay less attention to the items for sale and focus more on the shoppers. For example, if they see many people gathered at a computer shop, they might buy PCs expecting the demand to increase and raise prices.

Investopedia doesn’t give tax, investment, or financial services. The info is shared without considering any particular investor’s investment goals, risk tolerance, or financial situation and may not be right for everyone. Investing has risks, including losing money. It’s smart for investors to consult a qualified financial expert to figure out the best investment plan.

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